Decline is the medical term in case the position of the upper eyelid is lower than normal. There are many causes of the fall involving age-related (senile) muscle slimming or muscle defecation, congenital muscle weakness, trauma or sometimes neurological disease.
As we grow older, the tendon that holds the lift of the eyelid, which is the main muscle that can lift the upper eyelid, can gradually lengthen and be the cause of the fall of the upper eyelid. This is the most common cause of the fall.
Ectropion is the condition in which the lower eyelid is turned outward. The most common cause of the deflection is the horizontal relaxation of the skin of the lower eyelid that occurs with increasing age. In addition, causes of ectropion are injuries, chemical or thermal burns and skin tumors of the eyelids.
At the eyelid, the eyelid does not close properly and the patient complains of tearing, foreign body sensation, mucous secretions, and impaired vision.
Ectropion can be corrected surgically by local anesthesia and is usually achieved by restoring the position of the lower eyelid.
Entropion is called the condition in which the lower eyelid (seldom and the upper) is turned inward. This results in the lashes being rubbed on the surface of the bulb (trigeminal), causing intense irritation and eye pain.
In particular, from the friction of eyelashes to the cornea, unpleasant conditions such as corneal epithelial apoptosis, ulcers and permanent turbidity can be caused in this tissue.
The most common cause of entropion is the relaxation of the skin and eyelid tissues in general because of increasing age. More rare causes are inflammatory mucosal diseases that can lead to tissue scarring (scarring entropion) and spastic entropion.
Entropion can be corrected surgically by local anesthesia and is usually achieved by restoring the position of the lower eyelid.
In addition, the treatment of trichiasis can be done by various methods such as, diathermy, cryotherapy, electrolysis or surgical separation and removal of the anterior eyelid of the eyelid-bearing eyelid.
Palsy of the personal nerve
Palsy of the personal nerve results in the inability of contraction of the facial muscles that are rippled by the coarse nerve. The sufferer cannot use the muscles in the forehead, around the eyes, on the cheek and around the mouth.
Paresthesia is usually idiopathic (the cause is not found), or it may be after some cold (post-epithelial). Very rarely, it can be due to a volume that pushes the nerve in the course of the nerve or injures the nerve.
Due to the inability of the eyelid clamp to function, closure of the eyelids is almost impossible. Thus, it is observed that the clavicle is always open and the danger is enormous for the bulb, which is not properly protected by the eyelids and is continuously dehydrated.
The cornea is continuously exposed to the risk of suffering keratitis and ulcer, with permanent visual axis alterations and visual impairment.
This treatment aims at protecting the bulb from its continuous exposure so that its surface does not dehydrate. Continuous use of artificial tears during the day and closing of eyelids with bandage / adhesive tape during sleep are the first steps taken. In severe cases where the nerve function is not restored, the treatment is surgery and can combine a bariatric gold insertion into the upper eyelid, surgical repair of the lower eyelid, canthoplasty, or tarsorrhaphy.
There are a variety of conditions in which various shapes (tumors) are observed on the surface of the eyelids, which may be associated with benign skin lesions (also known as dandruff, hail, barley) or belong to malignant skin lesions ( basal cell carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, melanoma).
In these cases, it is necessary for the tumor to be excited, with simultaneous biopsy, leading to the correct diagnosis and possibly further treatment (chemotherapy or radiotherapy, tumor – free – limits).
There are cases where the skin defect of the eyelids is extensive, usually due to the resection of a structure (cancer) or injury. In these cases, more complex surgical rehabilitation procedures are required,
in which it is necessary to transport skin from adjacent areas (skin flaps) or from remote areas (skin transplantation) to fill the deficiency. In some more complicated cases, surgical recovery may require more than one procedure to complete (gradual recovery).